Rapid diversification, even within ecotypes, is supported by a separate project where we compared the genomes content of four strains of *Bacillus subtilis* subspecies *spizizenii* within a single ecotype. Gene annotations and genome comparisons with RAST showed that the strains differed in gene content, including genes for carbohydrate usage, specifically in utilization of maltose, maltodextrin and *myo*-inositol. Only one strain, G1A4, had genes that were non-paralogous to genes in the other strains; these were five genes for maltose and maltodextrin utilization. Strain G1A4 also had two paralogous genes for maltose and maltodextrin utilization in addition to the genes all of the strains shared; the strain G1A3 had three paralogous genes for the utilization of *myo*-inositol in addition to those in the core genome. To determine if differences in gene content reflect differences in ecology, strains were tested in monocoluture and in competition for their growth in media with the sole energy source as maltose, maltodextrin or myo-inositol. The strain G1A4, predicted to perform best on maltose and maltodextrin, did outperform the other strains. G1A4 also performed better on glucose, indicating that the strain was superior for reasons besides the extra maltose/maltodextrin genes (due to either the five other unique genes with known functions or one of the dozens of unique genes with unknown functions). The strain G1A3, predicted to perform best on *myo*-inositol, did not perform the best, even when data was corrected for the strainsโ growth differences in the glucose control. These findings demonstrate the value of combining genomic analyses with growth experiments. Differences in the ecology of strains can be difficult to determine from sequence data alone. But taken together, the results indicate that carbohydrates are one factor associated with very recent speciation events in bacteria.

The chemical mechanisms of^{ 1}H relaxivities were investigated extensively for each complex. The phosphonates appear to enhance the overall stability and may provide sites for enhanced hydrogen bonding to the bulk water and prototropic exchange.

Many of the molecules studied have been fluorinated hydrocarbons of atmospheric and molecular interest. Fluorine is a unique atom. It is has proved that it is not predictable and has created a number of interesting spectroscopic studies which have been presented in detail in this dissertation. Forbidden transitions, Coriolis coupling, ring-puckering, and long fluorinated alkane chains having a helical nature are just a few of the things encountered.

This dissertation also contains finished and unfinished work on actinide containing molecules: thorium and uranium. The actinide projects are of interest to the Department of Energy and the* f*-electron challenge. Due to the complicated nature of the actinides, much of this work is unfinished. The last chapter provides an overview of this, current line listing for both thorium and uranium containing molecules, and ideas for how to continue the projects.

An in-depth look at the chirp pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer is also included. Appendix A is a how-to manual for how the instrument operates either by hand or through an automation program. A guide for the Nd:YAG laser and ways to troubleshoot the instrument are also presented.

]]>To demonstrate our preservation result for non-cofibrant operads, we develop a theory for when the category of commutative monoids in *M* inherits a model structure from *M* in which a map is a weak equivalence or fibration if and only if it is so in *M*. We then investigate properties of cofibrations of commutative monoids, functoriality of the passage from a commutative monoid *R* to the category of commutative *R*-algebras, rectification between *E*_{โ}-algebras and commutative monoids, and the relationship between commutative monoids and monoidal Bousfield localization functors. We recover numerous known examples and a few new examples of model categories in which commutative monoids inherit a model structure. We then work out when localization preserves commutative monoids and the commutative monoid axiom. Finally, we provide conditions so that a left Bousfield localization satisfies the monoid axiom.

We prove a uniform version of the conjecture in the case where the abelian varieties are elliptic curves with complex multiplication. In addition, we provide explicit bounds in cases where the number field has degree less than or equal to 100.

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